Drones are becoming well established as critical tools in every kind of emergency, from fires and floods to the current pandemic.
In this guest column, researcher Nikhil Methiya at Gujarat, India outlines how drones are relevant to the crisis response. As the entire world scrambles to react to the global health crisis caused by the spread of the new coronavirus and the COVID-19 illness, conversations about automation and the role of robotics in society have never been more relevant. With the number of those infected by the new coronavirus passing 10,000 and the number of deaths passing 350 which is increasing exponentially, two main concerns sit at the forefront of government decisions:
- How do we slow down the spread of this highly infectious virus? And,
- How do we keep economies afloat and deliver essential goods amid the first lockdown of this scale that the modern world has ever seen?
Robotics in general, and especially commercial drones, have a major role to play in both of these endeavours.
Drones Helping Battle the Virus
First and foremost, drones have already proven to be useful tools in curbing the spread of the virus and aiding efforts to contain and battle the COVID-19 disease. There are in fact at least five tangible ways in which drones can and are being used right now:
- Medical Drone Deliveries
The most prominent use case for drones in the coronavirus crisis so far have definitely been medical drone deliveries. Medical drone deliveries can be a game changer for efforts to battle the virus not only because they can speed up deliveries of essential supplies and samples, but also because they reduce the exposure of crucial medical staff. This means that as far as regulations are concerned, especially in the case of the medical drone deliveries of test samples, masks, donations and much more could be scaled throughout this year and into 2021 to help hospitals and other public health stakeholders.
- Surveillance & Monitoring
The key policy currently in place to slow to the spread of the virus, or ‘flatten the curve’ of new cases is social distancing. This has involved the closing of Horeca (hotels, restaurants and cafes) in most countries and banning the public gatherings of people in order to limit physical contact. While in some nations this has been an effective policy, in others it has been more difficult to enforce – be it because individuals do not want to follow the new restrictions or because they are unaware about what they entail. Therefore, drones are now being used in Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, China, Mongolia, France and India to monitor public spaces and help authorities disband any social gatherings which may pose a risk to society. While the use of drones for surveillance and monitoring does introduce sensitive debates about privacy and individual rights, current policies in place are all managed by temporary emergency powers given to governments in a time of crisis. The introduction of drones simply alleviates the risk that members of the police have to be exposed to and plays a huge role especially in countries where police forces are underfunded and understaffed.
In addition to monitoring the streets, authorities are able to further reduce the risk and exposure of police officers and other personnel by using drones to broadcast messages and spread information about procedures. This use case has been seen not only in developed nations but further afield in less developed nations as well. Given the unprecedented nature of the current
public health crisis, broadcasting messages about social distancing and with key information about nearby hospitals is key to helping residents remain informed and participate in the global efforts.
Finally, other than developing a vaccination and slowing down the spread of the virus, governments are also concerned about improving public health infrastructure in order to be able to handle high numbers of patients in need of intensive care. In many countries this has involved adapting large spaces into temporary hospitals and in some cases the building of new
emergency hospitals and units to help care for infected patients away from those hospitalised for other reasons and therefore highly vulnerable to COVID-19. Drones frequently used for surveying have a major role to play in helping governments build more efficiently and with minimum human involvement (and thus exposure to the virus).
Meanwhile, the most direct use of drones so far has most definitely been their use for spraying disinfectant. So far little information is known about the conditions in which this is done, i.e. with or without any people present on the street and what kind of liquid is sprayed. There are also concerns that this could be very harmful for the rest of the flora and fauna there. However, authorities have confirmed that the liquids they are using are WHO approved. Indeed, if all the key aspects of the application, including the safety and security of residents, are taken into account this looks to be a promising use case for improving sanitation – especially in impoverished urban areas where it is especially poor.