Amid the economic and social challenges in India, rural poverty is a key challenge. The combination of a low-paying and largely rural economy, poor attainment in education/skills and lack of non-farm opportunities contribute to a high level of poverty.
As a result, there is a lack of access to healthcare services and the quality of care is often sub-optimal. This has led to a re-evaluation of how primary healthcare is delivered in difficult-to-reach areas of India.
1. Empowering Women
Women are a significant population in rural India and they play critical roles in ensuring food security, eradicating poverty and improving the livelihoods of their families. However, they continue to face serious challenges as a result of gender-based stereotypes and discrimination that deny them equitable access to opportunities, resources, assets and services.
In order to empower women in rural India, a combination of social, economic and political change is required. This can be done through the use of private initiatives, public policies and a range of other strategies.
Creating opportunities for women to engage in paid work can help them to build their financial independence, self-esteem and confidence. It can also lead to positive changes in their behavior and relationships with men.
For example, empowering rural women through agricultural development programs has been proven to increase their productivity and income. This can improve their family’s standard of living and enable them to save and invest for the future.
Another way to empower rural women is through leadership training and education. This can lead to improvements in their ability to communicate effectively, manage power dynamics and gain the support of their community.
One such method is the creation of village-level institutions such as gram panchayats (GP), school management committees (SMC) and village health and sanitation committees (VHSNC). These groups can be used to promote local governance, improve the quality of life in villages and provide social services.
The gram panchayat system is also a great tool for women to take action and resolve local issues that affect them. When they understand the functions of these institutions and their role as members, they are more likely to participate in decision-making and take action at the local level.
For instance, a recent program in Bihar trained women representatives of village-level institutions to take up leadership roles. During the course of this initiative, these women were informed about the many government schemes that benefit the community at large and about the functioning of gram panchayats, SMCs and VHSNCs.
These leaders were able to use these institutions as platforms for gaining credibility, independence and competitiveness within their communities. They are now more likely to take actions to solve local issues that impact their family’s welfare. These efforts are also contributing to the overall growth of their villages and community as a whole.
2. Empowering Children
Education is a basic human right, but millions of children around the world are not getting the education they deserve. In India, for example, 4% of children never start school and 58% of children do not complete primary school. The reasons for these low rates vary by region, but they are largely due to poverty.
In rural India, many families have low incomes and few resources for educating their children. This means that children often do not receive a high quality education, which can affect their health and career opportunities.
One way to empower children is to increase access to education, which can help them break the cycle of poverty and lead more fulfilling lives. This is especially true for girls, who are often more vulnerable to the social stigma surrounding education in rural areas.
To make this a reality, Vedanta Group is focusing on building Nand Ghars (literary centers) in rural India to provide education and health services to thousands of children. In addition, Vedanta is empowering women in these communities to gain economic independence through livelihood training workshops.
Another approach is to create an eco-system, where teachers and children work together to learn from each other. Rather than relying on technology, Vedanta encourages educators to teach using objects found in their homes and knowledge that they already have.
By bringing the focus on the learning process, Vedanta helps ensure that children are engaged and excited to learn. This can help improve retention and academic success, as well as reduce dropouts.
Finally, by encouraging teachers and parents to participate in school activities, Vedanta is promoting an inclusive learning environment where all children feel valued. This can help build trust and confidence among the children, which is essential for educational success.
To further promote education and empowerment of children in rural India, Vedanta has established the Economic and Social Empowerment of Rural Communities (ESERC) project to provide holistic care for the children of villagers and their families. This initiative was designed to address the various challenges that rural children face, including poor nutrition, low healthcare access, and lack of economic opportunity.
3. Empowering Communities
For rural India, the ability to empower communities has never been more crucial. With 68% of the population living in villages, empowering these communities can help ensure that they can live better lives.
The empowerment of women is a critical element in improving the well-being of communities. In fact, research shows that communities with women in leadership roles are more likely to report higher levels of wellbeing.
When a community is empowered, it takes charge of its own development, ensuring that the community members are able to achieve their own goals. In this regard, a four E strategy is critical: Engagement, Empowerment, Execution, and Exit.
This strategy has been a key component of PARD India’s approach to social change in Indian villages. It includes building community institutions, sharing relevant and actionable information, and connecting the community with relevant government departments and partners.
Village councils and self-help groups that are empowered to act on behalf of the community can ultimately impact other government programs and efforts in their area. For example, when a tsunami hit the villages of Andhra Pradesh in 2005, the networks of self-help groups and village organizations were able to quickly reach every family in the region.
Another way that communities can be empowered is by implementing health and hygiene projects in their communities. This involves providing training to community members about healthy lifestyles, conducting household visits and engaging with communities around the issues of nutrition and sanitation.
It is also important to make sure that the community has access to quality healthcare services. In India, the healthcare sector has made significant progress in recent years, but it is still struggling to provide high-quality care for all.
A community of tribal women from Siddheshwar in the state of Maharashtra recently started using plastic waste as a source of energy for their homes. They were inspired by this idea and began educating others about the issue.
In the future, these women will be able to share their experiences and knowledge with others, and encourage other communities to take up this practice. This will create a positive cycle of empowerment and innovation that can help the country develop and thrive in the long term.
4. Empowering Individuals
Throughout the world, leaders have been learning from each other and adapting their management practices. One leadership approach that is widely recognized as effective in India is to empower people by giving them the tools they need to solve their own problems. This enables employees to have more ownership of their own work and results, which can lead to more employee satisfaction and better long-term performance.
Developing these leadership skills takes time and practice, but it can be done. A recent workshop in the tribal hamlet of Siddheshwar, Jharkhand, reinforced this belief. Participants heard from speakers and attended workshops on topics such as leadership, communication, gram sabha, drug addiction, youth participation in economic development, Adivasi crisis, and self-help groups and their role in improving living standards.
In rural India, people often face discrimination based on their gender, religion, or caste. A common solution is to educate people about their rights and raise their voice in support of those who need it. This can help people develop a sense of self-worth and dignity, which can encourage them to take action.
Another approach that can improve leadership in rural communities is to focus on individual empowerment. In the case of women, this may involve empowering them with resources and training to start or grow their businesses. For example, the JEEViKA (Jeevan Prasad Vikas Kendra) program in Bihar, financed by the World Bank, works with rural women to transform their livelihoods.
The project has reached almost 10 million women and helped them access finance and markets to start or expand their small enterprises. The program also focuses on education and training, which can be a key factor in enhancing women’s economic independence.
To achieve these goals, JEEViKA uses a social protection-livelihood security framework that is designed to reduce poverty and build sustainable livelihoods. It is based on a combination of social security, income generating opportunities, and market-driven incentives to improve the lives of rural poor.
While these approaches are designed to empower individuals, they also require leadership at the community level. For example, in the state of Bihar, JEEViKA has created partnerships with local banks and other financial institutions to provide rural customers with loans that are affordable for their low incomes.