Hydrogen is an excellent way to decarbonise a range of sectors and processes. It offers a clean energy solution that can help meet international climate goals and boost air quality.
At present, hydrogen is produced from natural gas using a process called steam reforming. This produces CO2 as a by-product, making it grey hydrogen.
It is a renewable resource
Hydrogen fuel is an abundant, renewable resource that is produced through a variety of technologies. It can be extracted from water, renewable biomass, nuclear or fossil energy sources, using electrolysis or chemical catalysts.
Hydrogen production emits no greenhouse gases during its use or during its production, so it is one of the most environmentally friendly fuels available. It is also highly versatile and can be used to power a wide range of industrial processes or to produce energy.
It can also be converted into electricity, methane or liquefied natural gas (LNG) in pipelines or on ships. The hydrogen can then be transported or stored in a number of ways, such as tanks and compressed form.
Currently, most hydrogen in the United States is produced by steam reforming, combining high-temperature steam with natural gas to extract it from compounds such as methanol and methane. However, hydrogen can also be produced from water through electrolysis, which uses power generated by renewable resources and reduces carbon dioxide emissions.
The production of green hydrogen has the potential to contribute significantly to meeting the goals set in the Paris climate agreement. It can be a key component of the decarbonisation of heavy industry, long-distance freight, shipping and aviation.
It could also be an important part of storing intermittent energy in a way that does not require batteries. This would help to firm up the grid and ensure that a large proportion of our renewable power supplies are secure, especially as the world faces increasing uncertainty in terms of its supply of oil.
A growing number of governments around the world are taking steps to develop renewable hydrogen and make it more cost effective. This will be essential if governments want to scale up the use of this versatile, clean fuel and help it meet international standards.
It is non-toxic
Hydrogen is a versatile fuel that can be produced from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, or from biomass or coal. It has the potential to lower emissions and boost the flexibility of power systems and to reduce carbon intensity in the transportation sector.
Hydrogen has a long tradition of use as a clean, non-polluting fuel in industries such as oil refining and chemical manufacturing. In addition, it has been used to power ships and aircraft for decades. Its low-carbon profile, combined with its light weight and refueling convenience, make hydrogen an attractive option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport industry.
Today, most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming natural gas. However, this process releases a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. To make the most of hydrogen’s potential to reduce CO2 emissions, cleaner technologies need to be developed.
One way of producing green hydrogen is to use electricity to split water into its component parts – hydrogen and oxygen – using electrolysis. The electricity generated during the process is then injected into a fuel cell to generate hydrogen.
Another clean and sustainable way to produce hydrogen is through high temperature gasification, which produces it from natural gas or coal. The process uses chemicals to convert the gas to hydrogen and to remove impurities.
This method of hydrogen production has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 50% compared with steam reforming of natural gas. It can also reduce the need for transport infrastructure by enabling the generation and storage of clean hydrogen locally.
While the production of clean hydrogen may not be an easy task, it is well within reach for a range of different industries. It can help decarbonise sectors that are struggling to meet international climate goals.
It can also improve air quality by removing the need for toxic odorants in transportation applications. Unlike natural gas and propane, which have sulfur-containing odorants, hydrogen does not emit these pollutants.
In addition, hydrogen is a light, renewable fuel that can be stored in large tanks for long periods of time. This means it can be transported easily to remote areas where traditional diesel-based fuels are not available. In this way, it can be used to provide electricity and heat for rural communities and help people living in remote regions achieve their energy needs more cost-effectively.
It is light
Hydrogen is a promising energy alternative that can help tackle critical emissions challenges in a wide range of sectors, including long-haul transport, chemicals, and iron and steel. It also helps improve air quality and strengthen energy security.
For the mobility sector, clean hydrogen has the potential to be a key decarbonisation driver, offering ways to reduce CO2 emissions in road transportation, shipping, rail and aviation. The fuel can be used in a number of applications, including battery electric vehicles (BEVs), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and biofuel or synthetic fuel vehicles.
The energy required to produce hydrogen fuels is relatively high, but the cost can be reduced by using renewable electricity instead of fossil fuel power. There are several options for producing green hydrogen, including electrolysis, steam methane reforming, or natural gas combustion.
One way to reduce production costs is to use an artificial photosynthesis method, which mimics the process of natural photosynthesis by utilizing light. However, this process is not particularly efficient. Researchers at Michigan Technological University have found a solution to this problem and have recently published their research in the Journal of Physical Chemistry.
Essentially, their technology involves dotting silicon dioxide powder grain surfaces with tiny gold “islands.” The islands are designed to interact with visible light wavelengths and activate catalysis. The catalyst, in turn, generates energy from the light and enables the conversion of water into H2S molecules.
This research is a step towards more sustainable hydrogen fuel production. It could eventually lead to the replacement of natural gas with renewable hydrogen in power generation.
It can also be used to fuel a variety of industrial processes. For example, replacing diesel engines with hydrogen fuel cells in warehouse forklifts can reduce air pollutants associated with these engines.
Other industrial processes that can benefit from fuel cells include port drayage trucks, yard tractors and cargo handlers. It can also be used to replace switcher locomotives and marine vessels such as harbor craft, reducing diesel emissions.
As the global demand for hydrogen grows, it is important to find a way to make it competitive with other fuels. This is a challenge that will require innovation, technology and societal and political considerations.
It is reactive
Hydrogen is reactive, meaning that it reacts with other substances and elements to form hydrides, reduce metal oxides, or even catalyze recombination processes. It’s also a very strong oxidizing agent. This means that hydrogen is a great way to decarbonize some industrial processes where it can be used as a chemical feedstock or burned to provide the heat needed for operation.
This reactivity can be beneficial to the environment. For example, fuel cells are able to convert hydrogen into electricity without creating emissions.
A fuel cell works by splitting the hydrogen molecules into their protons and electrons. The protons pass through an electrolyte membrane, where they interact with oxygen. This process creates a circuit and excess energy that can be used to drive a car or truck.
The reaction rates of hydrogen are very high at elevated temperatures and pressures. This makes it a great way to make a cleaner burning fuel for combustion, especially when blending hydrogen with natural gas or other fossil fuels.
Unlike most other chemicals, hydrogen has a single valence electron, which allows it to be very reactive. This makes it very reductive, and it loses its electrons very quickly to other compounds (for example, alkalis).
However, the molecule is quite stable at room temperature. This is because of its high dissociation energy.
But if the molecule is heated or exposed to certain radiations, it can become explosive. This is a common problem for gas turbines that use hydrogen as a fuel.
These explosions can cause damage to the fuel nozzle, ignition hardware and the premixer. This is why it’s important to choose a fuel with as low a reactivity as possible.
Another way to lower a fuel’s reactivity is to manipulate the grain size of its components. For instance, researchers have been able to control the peak flow rate of hydrogen output from aluminum alloys by manipulating its grain size.
They found that reducing the grain size of silicon-containing aluminum increased the peak flow rate by 100 times, and from magnesium-containing aluminum by 10 times. The resulting compositions are much like pure aluminum and magnesium-doped aluminum, with the peak flux and rate of decline being similar over time.