History of Sandstone in Jaisalmer

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Jaisalmer Rajasthan, golden city, sonar quila

Jaisalmer, famous as ‘The Golden City’ is known for its architectural heritage built by yellow limestone and sandstone. It imparts a exquisite character to the city.

Jaisalmer Fort, Palace of Maharawal (now Fort Palace Museum), Nathmalji-ki-Haveli, Patwon ki Haveli and Salim Singh ki Haveli are some of the famous structures in this city made of yellow stone.

Origin

Jaisalmer is a city in the western Indian state of Rajasthan and is famous for its unique yellow sandstone architecture. It was founded in 1156 by Rawal Jaisal, the sixth in line of succession from Deoraj Bhati.

The yellow sandstone is found in abundance across the Thar Desert region, and has an earthy texture. This stone is a popular choice for flooring, paving, tabletops, landscaping, monuments, sills and exterior wall cladding. It is also known for its beauty, strength and resistance to frost, moisture, and alkali.

This stone has a deep connection with the architectural heritage of western India, and is commonly used in Jaisalmer. It has a variety of applications and can be used in any project, whether for flooring, paving or tabletops. It is a beautiful and durable option for interior applications, and is perfect for bringing a classic look to any home or office.

It is a common choice for masonry projects in residential and commercial settings, and is available in a variety of sizes. It is also used in interior walls and ceilings, as well as for cladding purposes.

Sandstone is a popular building material for its strong and lightweight properties, as well as its ability to resist weathering. It is often paired with other natural stones and materials to add an element of elegance to a space, and its durability makes it an ideal choice for large-scale construction projects.

One of the best ways to experience the culture of Jaisalmer is to take a tour of the fort and surrounding areas. There are numerous palaces and havelis to see, as well as temples and other attractions that offer a glimpse into the city’s history.

Another highlight of the city is its people, many of whom have an appreciation for the arts and crafts. This is evident in the open-air markets and bazaars where you can find everything from Tibetan singing bowls to semi-precious gemstones.

The desert folk of Jaisalmer are also well-known for their shimmering clothing, crafts and customs. They are the heart of the city, and it is easy to see why they are referred to as the “Golden City.”

The sandstone of Jaisalmer has been used extensively throughout the city’s architecture. It is used in the Jaisalmer Fort, Patwon ki Haveli, and Salim Singh ki Haveli as well as cenotaphs (burial monuments) at Bada Bagh. This yellow sandstone is known for its aesthetic appeal and rich history, making it an excellent choice for architectural projects.

Characteristics

The sandstone of Jaisalmer has many variations in color, texture and formation. It is extensively used in India and abroad for paving, flooring and wall cladding purposes and has also gained popularity as an ornamental stone.

The yellow sandstone from Jaisalmer is sought after by many countries for its beautiful colour and luster. This type of sandstone is highly resistant to abrasion and environmental weathering.

Sandstone is a sedimentary rock formed by sand or quartz grains which are cemented together with various cementing materials like silica, iron and lime. It is a dense rock that is strong and compact.

It is one of the most popular construction materials. It has many advantages such as strength, durability, resistance to abrasion and environmental weathering, acid and alkali resistance etc.

In India, sandstone is quarried from various locations across the state. It is widely used in paving, flooring, panelling and wall claddings.

Besides, it is used for decorative purposes such as statues and figurines. It is often carved to create a unique look.

The sandstone from Rajasthan is available in different colours and finishes. Some of the commonly used sandstone colours include red, beige, white and pink.

It is formed in the lower Jurassic Lathi formation. It has a medium to coarse-grained, moderately sorted and shows varying grain-size and texture (Figure 1(c)).

This sandstone was deposited in a storm-dominated shallow marine environment where the shelf water column piled up against the shore. The sandstone was deposited in three terrigenous cycles with the first cycle being a shallow marine sandstone with sand grains showing sphericity, skewness and roundness.

Another cycle was a shallow marine sandstone with coarse grains and fine skewed. This sandstone was deposited during the middle of the Jurassic period.

The sandstone from this area is generally fine to medium grained and contains mainly monocrystalline quartz grains which are cemented with carbonates and in some cases with iron oxides. It is an ideal stone for paving, flooring and exterior wall claddings.

Texture

Sandstone is a type of rock that has a variety of textures and patterns. It is often banded in different colors and can also be carved into beautiful designs and shapes. It is a popular stone for decorative purposes and can be used to create many different types of art and architecture.

The color of sandstone is determined by the composition and cementing materials that are used to form the rock. Some of the most common sandstone colors include white, brown, yellow and red. These colors are caused by the presence of iron oxides, manganese oxides and other impurities that can be present in the sandstone.

It is also important to note that sandstone is not a single type of rock, but is composed of several different types of minerals and cementing materials. These can vary from one region to another.

This is an essential part of the sandstone formation process because it gives the sandstone its distinctive appearance and texture. This can also be a good indication of the sedimentary environment that was responsible for its formation.

For example, sandstone that was deposited in shallow marine environments may have very different grain-size characteristics than those that were deposited in storm-dominated tidal flat environments. These differences can have significant effects on the sandstone’s textural maturity.

These differences can be observed in the sandstones of Jaisalmer as well. For instance, the Fort Member of the Jaisalmer Formation has three distinct sedimentation cycles (Ghaznavi et al., 2019; Ghosh & Chatterjee, 1994).

The sandstones of this cycle are medium to coarse grained, moderately well sorted and strongly fine skewed with a platy- to leptokurtic grain-size distribution. The sphericity values of the quartz grains range from 0.7 to 0.8.

These sandstones are found in an assemblage with laminated sandstones and are deposited in a mixed tidal flat environment. They exhibit plane to wavy lamination and small cross-bedding with herringbone cross-lamina sets occurring in the upper portion of the facies (Fig. 3D). The sandstones are intercalated with a reddish-white shales of variable thickness.

Applications

For centuries, sandstone has been used in the construction of buildings, monuments and forts. It is found in a vast number of different colours and finishes across India and is a very popular choice for architects and designers.

It is a durable and versatile stone that can be used for a variety of applications in both interior and exterior spaces. It can be cut into tiles and shaped into blocks for use as flooring, pavings, and tabletops. It can also be used for wall cladding, mosaic, and other decor ideas.

Sandstone is a popular choice for landscaping projects because of its durability and longevity. It’s naturally resistant to moisture, frost, and alkali, making it the perfect choice for a range of outdoor spaces.

Jaisalmer Yellow Sandstone, from the state of Rajasthan in India, is a popular variety. It has a radiant glow that adds warmth to any space, and is great for flooring, paving, and tabletops.

The sandstone can be rough finished or polished to a high sheen, and it comes in a wide range of shades. It can be used to create a variety of accents and patterns, and is especially lovely for patios and decks.

It has been quarried in Kota, Jaisalmer and Bidasar for years and is a great addition to any home. It is known for its attractive earthy colors, including white to buff, pale grey, brown and spotted brown.

This variety of sandstone is non-slippery and water-resistant, and can be rough or polished to a high sheen. Its natural, rustic appearance makes it a great option for indoor and outdoor applications, and it can be cut into tiles or shaped into blocks for use as flooring, tabletops, and other surfaces.

Another variety of sandstone is Jodhpur Sandstone, which is a durable and workable stone that is ideal for pillars, walls, and other external building materials. It is resistant to acids, alkalies, and salt, and is a great option for buildings that are near the seashore. It can be crafted into a wide range of architectural styles, from traditional to contemporary.

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Arushi Sana is the Co-Founder of Santerra Living, a bio-pellet factory that makes a renewable form of eco-coal and Co-Founder of NYK Daily, a global news platform. She was awarded the Times Power Women of the Year 2022, Times Digital Entrepreneur of the Year 2023, Silicon India's Top 10 Women Owned Startups of Hyderabad 2023 and IHW Council Climate Health Influencer 2024. Arushi is also a speaker for Sustainability and Entrepreneurship at various forms like the World Bank, UN International Solar Alliance and Universities, and was also invited to the UN COP28 UAE Climate Conference. She is a Sustainability Consultant for organisations looking to reduce their carbon footprint and also works with brands on social media to help them carve a presence in that niche. She holds a Degree in Computer Science Engineering from VIT University and a Diploma in Marketing Analytics from IIM Nagpur. She has previously worked in Ernst & Young and Deloitte as a Forensic Data Analyst. Arushi is a writer, political researcher, a social worker, a farmer and a singer with an interest in languages. Travel and nature are the biggest spiritual getaways for her, and she aims to develop a global community of knowledge and journalism par excellence through this News Platform.

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