In 2016, more than 17 million people in South Africa were reliant on social grants. While the number of people receiving social grants has decreased, many remain reliant, as evidenced by the fact that one in four households in the Eastern Cape, Northern Cape and Limpopo are entirely dependent on them. Meanwhile, in the Free State, one in four households depend on grants, while in the Western Cape, only 71% of households generate their income from salaries.
‘Reimagine our Future Youth Declaration’
The ‘Reimagine our Future Youth Declaration is a vision for the future of young people in South Africa, drafted by 150 young people from across the country. The process began in November 2020 with virtual workshops led by UNICEF, and is expected to run into 2021 with youth-led negotiations. The document addresses economic, environmental, and social issues, as well as the voice of young people as legitimate stakeholders.
Raising the aspirations of youth is an important part of improving their lives. While many young people have high aspirations for higher education or improved wellbeing, they have few opportunities to connect their aspirations to their own success. They may even doubt their own ability to achieve their aspirations. To overcome these hurdles, youth need safe spaces to reimagine their hopes and aspirations, leading to concrete action steps.
ANC’s anti-apartheid struggle
The ANC’s adherence to policies was in sharp contrast to its approach to the use of armed force against legitimate targets. The ANC was concerned with the risk of racial violence against white civilians, but it also had to evaluate how much public anger could be channeled into armed action and how it could achieve its ends. After violent acts by the regime against unarmed civilians, the ANC began to question its approach to race.
The ANC’s anti-apartheist strategy has been criticized by some as being too narrow. Many of the ANC’s economic policies are based on the white majority’s interests, and the black majority’s economic power is unaffected by these policies. The ANC’s economic policies have failed to reduce poverty and re-distribute resources, but they have helped the emergence of a thriving black professional class.
Despite the efforts of the ANC, the anti-apartheid struggle continues to suffer. Geraldine du Toit, a member of the ANC and a member of the liberation movement’s military wing, was detained and tortured for 17 days. In spite of these abuses, she eventually achieved success in politics and business. Her detention, meanwhile, fueled her anti-apartheid activism and eventually led her to become Chancellor of Nelson Mandela University.
Lack of skilled white labour
A shortage of skilled white labour in South Africa is a worrying issue, but how bad is it? Recent studies show that the South African education system is not keeping pace with demand for skilled graduates. The growing aspirations of the previously disadvantaged majority of the population compound this demand-driven labour market problem. This shortage has been felt across virtually all sectors of the economy. In addition, the unemployment rate is among the highest in the world. The high level of unemployment and low wages has a negative impact on the health of communities, with crime rates rising.
Although the unemployment rate in South Africa was only two percent at the end of the post-apartheid era, it increased to 25% by Mandela’s time in office. This was largely the result of post-apartheid problems. Because non-whites could move freely, they began seeking work. Moreover, the country’s economic structure changed and fewer unskilled workers were needed.
This shortage is not confined to the white sector. In fact, it affects the economy of both the black and white communities. It also affects the poorer economies of the region. While it affects other countries in the world, the South African economy faces specific problems related to its skills shortage. Nevertheless, the South African education system does not move fast enough to replenish the shortage of skilled white labour. Other worrying issues include HIV/AIDS and crime.
Discrimination based on race
Discrimination based on race is incredibly common in South Africa. As a country of mixed races, it is a source of considerable concern. Although South Africans are often proud of their cultural heritage, this is hardly the case in all corners of the country. For example, in Middelburg, white people often use racist tropes to attack black people. Despite the lack of proof, South Africans are more likely to associate racial stereotypes with certain ethnic groups than with others.
During South Africa’s first fifteen years of democracy, the prospect of a better life for all people trumped the country’s deeply entrenched inequities. However, as political hope faded, anger and despair set in. This climate was further exacerbated by the divisive political entrepreneurs and demand-side dissatisfaction. A lack of inclusion is a sign that the country has a deteriorating social and economic situation.
In 2008, the country’s education department commissioned a report by an education specialist from the University of Johannesburg. It concluded that racism and sexism were pervasive in the nation’s universities. However, little was done to address the report’s findings. According to Essop, investigations at other top South African universities would probably find similar problems. In other words, the country’s universities have a racially segregated workforce.
Recent research shows that South Africa is undergoing an escalating race and poverty crisis. Inequity primarily involves socioeconomic status and gender, but racial factors are a significant contributor to inequity in South Africa. Without addressing racism, other issues like poverty and gender will likely remain unaddressed, such as escalating violence and escalating crime.
The adverse health effects of racism are a result of chronic exposure. For example, the effects of racism include being treated less favorably, being stopped by the police for no apparent reason, and being monitored by salespeople while shopping. Chronic exposure to racism contributes to stress-related physiological effects. In South Africa, a heightened level of poverty has led to a significant increase in health disparities.
A recent National Academy of Sciences study revealed that black men are 2.5 times more likely to be killed by police than white men. In comparison, white men have a one-in-a-thousandth chance of being killed by police. However, the racial disparity between whites and blacks cannot be explained by higher crime rates in majority-black communities. Furthermore, a recent Post investigation found that murders committed by whites are more likely to be solved than those of blacks. While these findings are troubling, they are also revealing that the two groups are not always on the same page.
The South African National Income Dynamics Survey (SA-NIDS) is a nationally representative panel study of South African households. It is carried out by the Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit (University of Cape Town) and is based on data from the first three waves. It uses a stratified two-stage cluster sample design and randomly selects 400 households from Statistics South Africa. Its findings are alarming, given that there are many people living in poverty, but the country has made some important progress in reducing inequality.
While the overall level of inequality is high, it masks considerable regional variation. The lack of government revenue in Africa limits the government’s ability to provide good public services, finance social protection and exert influence over income inequality. The solution is to improve government revenue by strengthening tax collection and integrating informal activities into the tax system. But the only way to do that is to address the underlying causes of this worrying problem – inequalities in consumption and property ownership.
The study participants imagined a hypothetical society, and their feelings in such a society were imaginary. The results of this study were based on these hypothetical conditions and should be tested against a more realistic context. In addition to tackling economic inequality, it should be explored how social and cultural contexts can affect the development of the country. Further studies should test alternative explanations for the current situation. It is important to understand the impact of economic inequality on the socioeconomic situation of SA.