he IPCC is a United Nations organization that conducts assessments of climate change. Its reports provide the public with information about the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and human health. These assessments also assess the status of efforts to adapt to and mitigate climate change. Listed below are some of the most important reports. You can find them by topic or country. We recommend that you read all of them. You will be surprised by how valuable they are!
Impacts of climate change on ocean ecosystems
In addition to global warming, climate change is also having a profound effect on marine ecosystems. Recent observations have found increased acidification and warming in the Arctic, and these changes are worse than those observed in other regions. Furthermore, Arctic ecosystems are experiencing large-scale tipping points, including the collapse of summer sea ice and melting ice sheets and methane emissions from permafrost. These changes threaten to alter the integrity of the Arctic’s ecosystems, which are important assets for the world. As a result, the ecosystems and biodiversity there are at risk of being completely destroyed, or remaining as isolated fragments.
According to research published in Science, oceans are home to more than a million species. Increased temperatures threaten this diversity by causing species to migrate from one region to another, resulting in global homogenization of biodiversity. This would result in a decrease in species in warmer waters and an explosion in species in colder areas near the poles. Moreover, global fisheries and aquaculture could be severely impacted, as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports that fish are a major source of animal protein for three billion people.
The report lays out the steps necessary to protect ocean ecosystems and minimize the impact of climate change on marine life. First, countries must implement policies and ensure the adoption of sustainable practices in all sectors – including fisheries and tourism – which affect the ocean. Second, governments must continue to promote scientific research, which will help determine the extent of impacts on marine ecosystems and allow them to develop adaptation measures. Third, countries must accelerate efforts to decrease fossil fuel consumption and develop marine renewable energies. Finally, countries should adopt a legally binding agreement to protect biodiversity on the high seas and protect 30% of the ocean by 2030.
Finally, despite the complexity of marine systems, we still know very little about the ways in which these systems are affected by climate change. Increasing temperature causes more stratification of the ocean, which affects productivity levels. According to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the ocean absorbed 93% of the extra energy generated by the enhanced greenhouse effect. Meanwhile, increased oceanic stratification and depleted oxygen zones have led to changes in current regimes and in species communities.
Overall, climate change is changing the environment, causing many species to migrate towards the poles. While this is a positive trend, the opposite is also true. In addition to shifting to deeper locations, increased sensitivity to climate change also results in faster colonization rates. Changing ocean temperatures are also causing species to migrate toward the poles. The results of a recent study of 686 marine species show that their range will shift poleward as ocean temperatures warm.
Impacts of climate change on human health
Some of the most devastating effects of climate change on human health are already being seen. In parts of Canada, for example, Lyme disease ticks have been discovered. In Bolivia, there have been increased Dengue fever mosquitoes. Changes in weather patterns and plant distribution have altered the geographical distribution of certain insects and mosquitoes, and are believed to be contributing to an increase in seasonal allergies. Extreme heat waves and droughts have also been linked to an increase in human deaths.
Other impacts of climate change on human health include increased hunger, undernutrition, and forced migration. Climate impacts are also likely to exacerbate health problems, reducing access to food and clean water. People in the most vulnerable groups will be particularly affected by these impacts. The report also indicates that the impact of climate change will be most noticeable after mid-century. Despite the looming dangers of global warming, there is no way to avoid addressing them.
As global temperatures rise, there is a higher risk of heat-related illness, including dehydration and heat exhaustion. Furthermore, higher temperatures will exacerbate pre-existing illnesses and aggravate existing conditions. The 2003 European heat wave was responsible for 70,000 premature deaths. However, it is difficult to estimate the mortality and morbidity due to extreme heat, as medical records rarely capture this data. In addition, a future warming of two to five degrees Celsius will affect approximately 2,000 to 10,000 people per year in each of the twenty-nine largest cities in the US.
One of the most troubling effects of climate change is the increasing prevalence of tropical diseases. Certain insects are known to carry diseases like dengue and chikungunya. It is not always the case that climate change is the predominant factor in the spread of these diseases, but it certainly makes the situation worse. A new study at the University of Bergen argues that climate change is linked to dengue fever, which has increased 30 times over the last five decades.
The severity of climate change’s impact on human health is highly dependent on how vulnerable a population is and how well they adapt to its effects. Adaptation rates vary, as do health sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Climate change will most likely affect a greater number of populations than others, especially those in lower-income countries. Nevertheless, a global commitment to curb carbon emissions is necessary to avoid the worst effects of the crisis.
A reduction in air quality is another ill effect of climate change. Warmer temperatures and increased carbon dioxide will lead to an increase in air pollutants, which in turn will affect air quality indoors. Poor air quality can cause asthma attacks, respiratory problems, and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, increased wildfires will lead to increased smog, which is a thick haze in the sky. Most commonly seen in industrialized and big-city areas, smog is caused by increased fossil fuel use, which releases air pollutants.
Status of efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change
In order to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement, effective climate-change responses will need to be implemented at many scales. Mitigation and adaptation policies can complement each other, as well as other societal objectives. These policies can be developed and implemented by most national governments. They include policies to reduce vulnerability, ecosystem-based approaches, and livelihood diversification. Adaptation policies can reduce the impact of climate change while reducing costs.
Despite international agreements and commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, current mitigation and adaptation efforts still fall short of the goals set forth by the Paris Agreement. The global average temperature has risen by about 0.85degC since 1880, and grain yields have decreased by 5 per cent for each degree of temperature increase. The rise in temperatures has led to yield reductions of 40 megatons of grains per year for most major crops.
Although there is sufficient information on how much energy and water are needed to reduce emissions, the study of climate change often ignores the resource use in the process. Energy-intensive industries, for example, may be rich in alternative energy sources, but poor in freshwater. Mitigation and adaptation strategies should take into account common resources, such as water and food. Some mitigation and adaptation strategies may require a cooperative social order, which can have implications on the future of human populations and societies.
While many countries have begun to implement measures that will mitigate climate change, the global community needs to make an effort to adapt to this new reality. Without effective climate change adaptation planning, the global community will continue to face the same threats as it has today. The global community needs to act now and take action to prevent the effects of climate change before they reach a critical stage. This is only possible by taking collective action.
The UNEP’s approach to climate change mitigation involves multifaceted efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It can include using new technologies, improving old equipment, and altering consumer behavior. Adaptation strategies may include major structural changes, such as building new cities, or as simple as improving the design of existing buildings. These actions are needed now more than ever. A comprehensive list of climate change adaptation and mitigation plans can be found at UNEP.
While conventional mitigation strategies focus on reducing CO2 emissions, they are insufficient to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. Instead, countries are seeking innovative approaches to meet these goals. In the second half of the 21st century, many countries will start decarbonization efforts, which may take decades. But for now, it is important to recognize that conventional methods of mitigation are still far from adequate. The goal of this agreement is to limit global temperature increases to 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit).