Of all the ancient traditions and cultures that established the basis of Western civilization, Greece is one of the most outstanding. Concepts like military strategy, colonialism, and democracy are all from the early parts of Greek history. This piece will show the rise of Greece from the beginnings to its spectacular decline and the final fall following the attack by the powerful forces of Rome over 2,100 years ago.
The Roman and Greek empires, the dynasties of old Egypt, and the Sumerians of Mesopotamia are considered to be the four most important civilizations that have had the greatest level of influence on Western societies, even right into our 21st century. The presence and worship of several gods, the establishment of laws, advancement of science, the creation of voting rights for the citizens, appreciation of expressive arts are all things that can be traced back to these ancient civilizations, and they spurred even later cultures that flourished for cultures.
In this piece, there will be a concentration on Greece, and the residents of that time were referred to as Hellas. Commencing before the coming of a written language, then the Greek culture’s conceptualization and the tumultuous links between the Greeks and the other neighboring societies are all discussed here. It also examines the facts of the historical events that led to Greece’s fading away as a power of international status.
Reading and Writing in Greece – 3,500BCE to 1,500 BCE
The best phase to commence this is the pre-cultural period of Greece. Even though it was a fertile place for several tribes, settlements picked up over time. This was a time when trading became more intense, and the main commodity then were the olive trees, and just as the trade routes became more prominent, olive oil became the most crucial currency of its era.
This time, the first kind of Greek writing showed up in history and was called Linear A. It will not be until about 1,500 BCE that another script called Linear B came up. It is a precursor to what is now the Greek language.
The Rise of the City-States
By the time it was 1500 BCE, the wealthy tradesmen had proceeded to establish even more sophisticated settlements. Some islands located in the Aegean Sea and the port cities close to the coast turned into comfortable shelter places, and the signs of opulence and luxury were everywhere. At this point, the wealthiest settlement then was Mycenae.
Sparta and Athens – the Icons of Power and Prosperity
Athens’s cultural and economic power started rising in the 9th and the 8th centuries BCE and launched the first Olympic Games event in 776BC. Around the same time, the legendary epic poems of Homer, the Iliad, and the Odyssey were provided in writing.
At this time, their fellow citizens elected the government officials of Athens instead of being appointed. This way, the citizens began to accumulate wealth and started the creation of mini dynasties. They also transferred their landed property and the other valuables from one generation to another.
Democracy, Persian Invasion and the Rise of Athens
The period from 600 BCE to 500 BCE can be described as the era of democratization. However, this was to become interrupted from 545 BCE to 448 BCE with invasion by the Persian forces against Greece’s city-states. The most powerful pair of city-states to confront the Persians were Athens and Sparta. This would later be followed by Athens’ ascendancy, which is witnessed from 465 BCE to 429 BCE.
The decline of the impressive city-state of Athens commenced in 431 BCE and continued until 260 BCE. Still, the coming of Alexander the Great showed some promise for the Greek nations until the rise of Rome, followed by the relentless waning of the Greek Empire.